Hypertension, often known as high blood pressure, is a condition in which blood flows at higher-than-normal pressures through your arteries. Two numbers make up your blood pressure: systolic and diastolic. The pressure created by the ventricles pumping blood out of the heart is known as systolic pressure. The pressure between heartbeats while the heart is filled with blood is known as diastolic pressure. This blog (Hypertension (High Blood Pressure): Overview, Symptoms, Causes, and Health Threats) deals with the medical challenges of high blood pressure.

Depending on what you do, your blood pressure changes throughout the day. The normal blood pressure value for most people is less than 120 over 80 millimeters of mercury (120/80 mm Hg), which is reported as your systolic pressure reading over your diastolic pressure reading. When your systolic blood pressure is consistently 130 mm Hg or higher, and your diastolic blood pressure is consistently 80 mm Hg or higher, your blood pressure is deemed high.

Type Systolic and diastolic readings
Normal Systolic: less than 120 mm Hg
Diastolic: less than 80 mm Hg
Elevated Systolic: 120–129 mm Hg
Diastolic: less than 80 mm Hg
High Blood Pressure or Hyper Tension Systolic: 130 mm Hg or higher
Diastolic: 80 mm Hg or higher


Symptoms of high blood pressure

High blood pressure normally has no symptoms or warning indications, and many people are unaware that they have it. Only by measuring your blood pressure can you determine if you have high blood pressure. Symptoms do not appear until the illness has progressed to a severe state. The following are some of the signs and symptoms of severe hypertension:

  • Chest Pain
  • Difficulty Sleeping
  • Dizziness
  • Facial Flushing
  • Headaches
  • Nervousness
  • Nosebleeds
  • Shortness of Breath
  • Sweating
  • Visual Change

Causes of hypertension or high blood pressure

There is no single cause of high blood pressure in the majority of people. However, there are a few factors that increase your chances of getting it. These are known risk indicators.

Some high blood pressure risk factors can be managed, such as when you are accustomed to:

Tobacco use: Smoking or chewing tobacco not only momentarily raises your blood pressure, but the chemicals in tobacco can also damage the lining of your artery walls. This can narrow your vessels, increasing your risk of cardiovascular disease. Secondhand smoking can potentially raise your risk of heart disease.

Drinking alcoholic beverages: Heavy drinking might harm your heart over time. Blood pressure may rise in women who drink more than a one-time drink per day and in men who consume more than two times drinks per day.

Consume excessive amounts of processed foods and salt: Many packaged foods are high in salt. When you eat too much salt, your body retains water, which elevates your blood pressure.

Obesity: Obesity or being overweight raises your chances of developing high blood pressure. Even decreasing a few kg can help to reduce blood pressure.

You are consuming too much salt (sodium) in your diet: If you eat too much sodium, your body will retain fluid, which will raise your blood pressure.

Being inactive physically: Physically inactive people have a higher heart rate. The higher your heart rate is, the tougher your heart has to function with each contraction and the heavier the pressure on your valves. Obesity is also associated with a lack of regular exercise.

Overstress: When you’re stressed, your body releases hormones that raise your blood pressure. The specific link between long-term high blood pressure and chronic stress is yet unknown to researchers.

Potassium deficiency in the diet: Potassium helps balance the quantity of sodium in your cells. Heart health necessitates a good potassium balance. If you don’t get enough potassium in your food or if you lose too much potassium due to dehydration or other health concerns, sodium can build up in your blood.

Age: Your possibilities of acquiring high blood pressure grow as you get older. Men are more likely than women to have high blood pressure until they reach the age of 64. At the age of 65, women are more prone to high blood pressure.

Family History: Someone in your family (blood-related family members) has or had high blood pressure before the age of 60, according to a family history of high blood pressure. The earlier you hit 60, the more chances you have of developing high blood pressure.

For a variety of causes, high blood pressure runs in families. Blood relations share many of the genes that can predispose a person to high blood pressure, heart disease, or stroke. DNA is genetic particles transmitted down from one generation to the next. Some risk factors, like nutrition, exercise, and smoking, may be shared by relatives.

Health Threats of Hypertension

High blood pressure (HBP, or hypertension) causes harm over time in the majority of instances. If left untreated (or uncontrolled), high BP or hypertension can lead to:

  1. A heart attack or a stroke is both possibilities. Atherosclerosis (hardening and thickening of the arteries) caused by high blood pressure can lead to a heart attack, stroke, or other issues.
  2. High blood pressure can cause the heart to expand and fail to provide blood to the body, resulting in heart failure.
  3. The failure of the kidneys — High blood pressure damages the arteries that provide blood to the kidneys, impairing their ability to sort blood adequately.
  4. Problems with memory or thinking. Uncontrolled high blood pressure might impair your capacity to think, recall, and learn. People with high blood pressure are more likely to have memory or comprehension problems.
  5. High blood pressure can cause sexual problems and a decrease in desire in women.
  6. Blood flow to the brain can be restricted by narrowed or clogged arteries, resulting in dementia (vascular dementia). Vascular dementia can also be caused by a stroke that blocks the blood supply to the brain.
  7. High blood pressure increases or strains the blood vessels in the eyes, resulting in vision loss.
  8. High blood pressure can develop into heart disease or microvascular disease (MVD) over time, causing angina. Angina, or chest pain, is a common sign or symptom.
  9. High blood pressure can induce atherosclerosis, which causes a narrowing of arteries in the arms, legs, stomach, and head, causing fatigue and pain.

This article (Hyperhension (High Blood Pressure): Overview, Symptoms, Causes, and Health Threats) explained the medical challenges of HBP.

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